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Referee: The competition official who has full authority over all aspects of a competitive event and supervises the panel of judges.

Region: One of nine geographic areas of the United States in which regional qualifying competitions are held.

Regional championship: The lowest level of qualifying competition.

Repeated element: A second attempt at an element previously attempted or completed in a program. Not permitted in short programs.

Required deductions: Deductions that must be taken from a skater's marks due to errors made by the skater or violations of the rules.

Required elements: The elements that must be included in a short program.

Required elements mark: The first of two marks awarded when judging singles, pairs, and precision team short programs, based primarily on the technique displayed in the skating of the required elements.

Retrogressive steps: Steps in the direction reverse to the overall motion of the pattern.

Reverse crossfoot spin: A two-foot upright spin in which the skating leg is straight at the knee and hip, the free leg is crossed behind the skating leg, and the skater spins on the toes of both blades.

Reverse platter: A lift similar to the platter lift, with the lifted partner in inverted position. The partners skate facing the same direction, with the lifting partner skating backwards. The lifting partner places his hands on the hips of the lifted partner (toward the rear) near waist level. The lifted partner is raised overhead with the arms of the lifting partner fully extended. In the air, the lifted partner's position is parallel to the ice with an arched back and with the legs extended gracefully backwards, one of which will be straight and the other bent. Variations consist of different arm and leg positions of the the lifted partner. At the lower levels the lifted partner may choose to grasp the lifting partner's wrists during the takeoff.

Reverse scratch spin: A one-foot upright spin in which the skating leg is straight at the knee and hip, and the free leg is crossed behind the skating leg.

Rhythm: 1. A regular, repeated pattern formed by a series of notes of differing duration and stress which give music its character. 2. A specific kind of such pattern; e.g., waltz rhythm, tango rhythm, etc. 3. The combination of the meter and tempo of the music.

Rocker: 1. A turn on one foot in which the skater changes direction but not edge, producing a trace which is a section of one circle before the turn and a section of another circle of opposite curvature after the turn. The cusp of the turn points inwards from the center of the circle preceding the turn and outwards towards the center of the circle following the turn. 2. Any compulsory figure consisting of three circles in which rocker turns are used to transition from the center circle to the end circles. 3. The curved contour extending from the heel to toe of a skate blade.

Russian split: A split jump of one-half rotation in which the legs are split mid-way through the jump by extended them upwards and outwards, parallel to the ice, while the arms are extended forwards towards the toes.

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Copyright 2002 by George S. Rossano