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Salchow jump: A normal rotation edge jump. The skater takes off from a back inside edge, and lands on the back outside edge of the opposite foot.  Named after Ulrich Salchow, the correct pronunciation rhymes with row, as in a boat, not cow, as in the animal.

Sanction: Permission granted by a governing body to an organization to hold a competition, show, or exhibition that included the participation of eligible skaters.

Scale of Values:   The tabulated values for the Base Values and Grade of Execution point values for all elements that can earn points under the International Judging System.

School figure: See compulsory figure.

Scratch spin: A one-foot upright spin in which the skating leg is straight at the knee and hip, and the free leg is crossed in front of the skating leg.

Scribe: A mechanical device used to inscribe circles on the surface of the ice to aid in the practice of compulsory figures. The use of scribes is not permitted in competitions.

Section: One of three geographic areas of the United States in which Sectional Championships are held.

Sectional championship: The level of qualifying competition above the Regional Championships, and preceding the National Championships.

Separations: Steps and movements in a program where dance couples or pair teams are not holding onto each other while skating. Restricted in dance events, unrestricted in pair events.

Serpentine: 1.  Any compulsory figure consisting of three circles and no turns.  2.  One of several possible shapes of a step sequence or spiral sequence, where the pattern consists of at least two bold curves that cover the entire ice surface.  Serpentine patterns are frequently concluded by closing the last bold curve into a circle, resulting in a pattern that is more in the form of a large "q" covering the entire ice surface

Serpentine step sequence:  A step sequence executed with a serpentine pattern.

Serpentine spiral sequence:  A spiral sequence executed with a serpentine pattern.

Set down: See dismount.

Set pattern dance: An ice dance for which the pattern is prescribed, and in which the steps are always taken in specific places on the ice surface.

Shadow skating: The act of two or more skaters moving in such a way that the motions of the skaters are shadow (identical) images of each other.

Short program: A program consisting of required elements and connecting moves that forms the first part of some singles, pairs, and precision team competitions.

Side-by-side jump combination: A jump combination executed simultaneously by two skaters who are skating near each other but not holding onto each other.

Side-by-side jump sequence: A jump sequence executed simultaneously by two skaters who are skating near each other but not holding onto each other.

Side-by-side skating: The skating of two skaters who are near each other but not holding onto each other.

Side-by side solo jumps: An individual jump executed simultaneously by two skaters who are skating near each other but not holding onto each other.

Side-by-side solo spins: A spin in one position, on one foot, executed simultaneously by two skaters who are skating near each other but not holding onto each other.

Side-by-side spin combination: A spin combination executed simultaneously by two skaters who are skating near each other but not holding onto each other.

Simple mean:  The average of a group of numbers using all the numbers in the calculation.   Used to average point values under the International Judging System when a small number of judges make up the panel of judges.

Single jump: Any jump having one or more, but less than two, rotations in the air.

Single skating (singles): A discipline of skating in which individual skaters perform maneuvers on ice in programs choreographed to accompanying music.

Single trimmed mean:  The average of a group of numbers calculated by first eliminating the highest and lowest value number and then averaging the remaining values.     Used to average point values under the International Judging System when five or more judges make up the panel of judges.

Single twist lift: A twist lift in which the woman makes one-half rotation while in the air while the man turns 1/2 turn over the ice.

Sit spin:  One of the three basic spin positions, the others being upright and camel.  In the traditional sit spin position, skating leg is bent at the knee and hip with the torso leaning forward and the back arched, and the free leg is extended forward with the free foot turned out and held just above the ice.  The essential characteristic of a sit spin position is that the included angle at the knee joint of the skating leg must be no greater than 90 degrees (120 degrees in ice dancing).  Under the International Judging System, a position in which the included angle exceeds the maximum allowed is designated an upright position.

Skating clean:  Skating a program without making any major error such as falls, touch downs, or cheated jumps.

Skating foot: The foot supporting the skater's weight, in contact with the ice.

Skating leg: The leg supporting the skater's weight, in contact with the ice.

Small lifts: The lifts used in pair skating encompassing dance lifts, variations of pair lifts in which neither hand of the lifting partner is raised above shoulder level, and armpit lifts (which are not counted as overhead lifts in the lower divisions of pair skating).

Solo jump: An individual jump preceded and followed by connecting moves or footwork.

Solo spin: A spin which is executed in only one basic position and with no changes of foot.

Speed: The rate of motion of a skater over the ice; i.e., the distance traveled per unit time.

Spin: A maneuver in which a skater rotates over a position on the ice.

Spin combination: A spin which includes one or more changes of foot and/or one or more changes of position.

Spiral: A movement in which the skater glides on one foot with the upper body bent forwards at the waist with the back arched, and the free leg is held extended at a level above the ice surface higher than the hip of the free leg.

Spiral sequence:  The more modern name of a spiral step sequence..

Spiral step sequence: A step sequence in which the skater(s) are primarily in the spiral position.

Split jump: Any jump in which the legs are split after the takeoff and before completing the rotations of the jump.

Split twist lift: A twist lift in which the woman's legs are split in the air before completing her rotations in the air.

Spread eagle: A connecting move in which the skater glides on two feet with toes pointed in opposite directions and legs held straight in the form of an inverted "V".

Stag jump: A split jump in which the forward leg of the the split is bent sharply at the knee in a position reminiscent of a leaping stag.

Standing up: Getting through a program without any falls.

Star lift: An overhead lift. The partners face each other and the lifted partner is raised over the lifting partners head using a hand-to-hand grip with one arm, and a hand-to-hip grip with the other arm. Both of the lifting partner's arms are fully extended. In the air the lifted partner is in a scissors position with one hand clasping one hand of the lifting partner and the other on the lifting partner's shoulder. Variations include the lifted partner having one or both hands free in the air, or being raised by the lifting partner using one arm with a hand-to hip grip.

Starting foot: The foot on which the first trace of a compulsory figure is begun.

Starting order: The order in which the competitors will perform in a given part of a competition.

Stepover: 1. A forbidden move in which the skater, gliding backwards, executed a back somersault with one leg preceding the other, and lands on one foot.  2. A step taken to change foot in a combination spin.

Step sequence: A sequence of turns, steps, edges and other movements that immediately follow one another, executed in time to the music, and which are choreographically related to each other.

Stops: Places in a program where the skater's motion over the ice comes to a halt.

Strike: 1. The part of the trace in a compulsory figure where the skater steps onto an edge. 2. The action of stepping onto an edge in a compulsory figure.

Stroke: The action of engaging the surface of the ice with the inside edge of the blade of the free foot, pushing, stepping onto the opposite foot, and lifting the first foot off the ice surface, to propel the skater forwards or backwards.

Stroking: Sequential strokes taken with alternate feet to propel the skater along the ice surface. Correct stroking does not make use of the toe picks.

Sub-curves: Extraneous wiggles in the trace of a circle in a compulsory figure caused by errors in position (lean) while skating the figure.

Sureness: The degree to which the skating is executed with confident, secure balance and positions are held with authority and control.

Swan lift: See platter lift.

Swing: That quality of dance movement characterized by a sweeping motion and an easy, swaying gait.

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Copyright 2006 by George S. Rossano